Popular features of Academic Language
Students often think that academic language should sound complex and start to become difficult to write and understand but that is not necessarily the outcome. Instead, academic writing should really be clear and concise in order to communicate its contents within the simplest way.
This page functions as a summary associated with the options that come with academic language additionally the corresponding language skills which can be necessary to understand and employ language that is academic. These guidelines are designed to help you have a clearer understanding of the demands of academic writing and develop skills to boost your writing that is academic in.
This 3 minute video from Lund University for a quick introduction to academic writing, watch
Formal writing requires considerable effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments that make the written text simple to comprehend. Generally speaking this means that conversational English should really be avoided and facts and figures must certanly be presented in a manner that is clear. Academic texts should be factual, concise and accurate. Choose words precisely and carefully so the reader can understand the concepts accurately inside the text.
It is critical to understand that academic texts are written with an audience that is academic mind and your writing style needs to conform to the conventions regarding the field you might be studying.
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To have the level that is appropriate of, you need to read literature inside your field. This can also help you learn and employ subject-specific terms. Correct usage of terminology and language facilitates your communication and heightens the credibility of your work.
The Academic Phrasebank through the University of Manchester is a rich resource of phrases that may be used in academic writing.
In English, contractions are employed in informal settings consequently they are therefore not suitable for academic texts. As opposed to using a contraction you really need to write the words out in their entirety. Here are a examples that are few
Don’t – do not
Wasn’t – was not
Can’t – cannot (Observe that it really is printed in one word)
It’s – it is (take notice of the difference between “it’s” (contraction of “it is”) therefore the possessive “its” (as with “The dog wagged its tail”)
Acronyms and Abbreviations:
It’s important to use acronyms and abbreviations properly in academic writing so your text is as clear as you possibly can for the reader. You really need to only use abbreviations when it generates the reading of your text easier. Another rule of thumb is that the abbreviated term should appear at the very least three times within the paper. It might be better to spell it out if you use a term more rarely. Words which can be commonly abbreviated such as “professor” (prof.) and “department” (dept.) must be spelled call at academic texts. Note however that some abbreviations can be utilized in citations and reference lists.
An acronym is a type of abbreviation this is certainly formed because of the first letter of every word in a phrase or organization. UN and WHO are two examples of well-known acronyms. When you introduce the acronym, you need to write out the whole name or phrase accompanied by the acronym in parentheses. Once you have introduced it, you may make use of the acronym when you look at the rest of one’s text. As an example:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has expressed concern over the spread for the virus. The Who May Have therefore….
Latin abbreviations should never be used in the text itself but may be used in parentheses or perhaps in notes and illustrations.
In academic writing, the complexity associated with the subject material is acknowledged through critical analysis. This is often done through asking questions and examining and evidence that is evaluating. Through critical analysis we are able to add a new perspective to a subject instead of just rewriting what had been written.
Treating your topic along with your material in an manner that is analytical seep through in your language. Section of being analytical in your writing would be to compare and contrast, evaluate and consider both relative sides of an issue. In addition means that you explain, give reasons, draw conclusions, make suggestions and recommendations and support this with evidence.
Academic writing is founded on research and not in the writer’s own opinion about a given topic. You are concerned about facts and not influenced by personal feelings or biases when you write objectively. When presenting an argument towards the reader, attempt to show both sides whenever you can and steer clear of value that is making.
At the time that is same will probably want to do an analysis or a discussion plus in that manner express an attitude. To be able to convey attitude without needing for instance “I think”, you might use words such as for example apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely and unexpectedly. Note that the attitude you will be expressing really should not be predicated on personal preferences but rather regarding the evidence you are presenting.
For more information and samples of subjective and objective language, see this handout from the University of Adelaide.
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In general, academic texts are impersonal in general. Which means that the main emphasis should be on evidence and arguments rather than according to personal opinion and feelings. The employment of personal pronouns such as “I”, “we” and “you” must be avoided whenever you can.
Some kinds of academic writing encourage the usage of personal pronouns. For example, in reflective writing the usage of the personal pronoun is accepted.
You should be aware that the application of personal pronouns can be different between academic fields and that some disciplines do not accept it at all. Remember to check what is recommended, either by asking your instructor or by reading other texts that are academic your subject.
Active and passive voice
One means of avoiding the utilization of personal pronouns is by using the passive voice.
I used a variety of techniques to analyze my material. (Here the “I” is the subject performing the action).
A number of techniques were used to investigate the material. (This sentence is impersonal as well as the action is conducted upon the niche do my homework for me, “A variety of techniques”, by an unnamed agent. The choice of “the” instead of “my” also serves to help make the sentence more objective).
Use of the voice that is passive be somewhat heavy and often imprecise. Nowadays, many writers avoid an excessive utilization of the passive voice. A way of writing objectively but still use the active voice is to try using your material, your text or your research once the active agent.